Taylor, on 27 overnight, was dismissed by Tim Bresnan for 96 - the cornerstone of Nottinghamshire's 335 for eight declared.
Chris Read's 75 and Peter Siddle's carefree 48 not out effectively ended the White Rose's hopes of victory at Headingley by taking the winning target to 294, and both sides pocketed nine points when Yorkshire closed on 53 for three.
After one run in the first three overs, Taylor picked things up with two boundaries off Jack Brooks and moved into the 40s with successive fours off the same bowler.
Michael Lumb was in less fluent touch, adding just six to his day three score of 43 and spending 13 balls on 49 before Steve Patterson had him caught behind.
Patterson then struck three balls later to send Samit Patel packing for a duck.
At 125 for four the door was ajar for the Tykes, and remained so when four-wicket Tim Bresnan trapped Riki Wessels lbw for 18.
But Taylor and Read, who was dropped on 53, firmly closed it again with a sixth-wicket stand worth 115 in 27.3 overs.
Wicket: One more goes, this time Samit Patel accounts for Adam Lyth. Yorkshire 43-3. Could this still be alive? #YorksvNotts
— Nottinghamshire CCC (@TrentBridge) June 11, 2014
Taylor, having hit 12 fours, was one more away from a long-awaited ton but departed when a legside clip off Bresnan went straight to Adil Rashid at square leg.
Read and Siddle continued the onslaught, adding another 45 before the captain fell to the same combination of Bresnan and Rashid having hit nine fours and a six.
By then Siddle had already eased the lead towards 300 with a series of hefty strikes before Patterson made Andre Adams his fourth victim.
He finished with 4-57 but saw the final ball before the declaration bunted for six by Ajmal Shahzad.
With just 39 overs remaining in the day Yorkshire's only realistic aim was to avoid losing a cluster of wickets and they succeeded.
Alex Lees and Jack Leaning were both dismissed cheaply by ever-green New Zealander Adams but Nottinghamshire managed just one more success.
Adams was involved again as he held on to Adam Lyth's nick off Patel but Andrew Gale and Jonny Bairstow shut up shop before the teams shook hands eight overs early.